Image anomaly localization is an important problem in image processing and computer vision, with numerous applications in many areas, such as industrial manufacturing inspection, medical image diagnosis and even video surveillance analysis. The goal of image anomaly localization is to locate the anomaly or anomalous region on the pixel level. Like most other anomaly detection problems, we formulate image anomaly localization as an unsupervised task. More specifically, it means training set only contains normal images, and no anomalous images and corresponding labeled masks are available during model training. This is because anomalous examples are either too expensive to collect or too few to be modeled, which makes it an extremely challenging yet attracting problem.

To tackle this problem, we propose a new image anomaly localization method, called AnomalyHop [1], based on the successive subspace learning (SSL) framework. This is also the first work that applies SSL to the anomaly localization problem. AnomalyHop consists of three modules: 1) feature extraction via successive subspace learning (SSL), 2) normality feature distributions modeling via various Gaussian models, and 3) anomaly map generation and fusion. As compared with previous deep-learning-based image anomaly localization methods, AnomalyHop is mathematically transparent, easy to train, and fast in its inference speed. Besides that, its area under the ROC curve (ROC-AUC) performance on the MVTec AD dataset is 95.9%, which is the state-of-the-art performance.

-By Kaitai Zhang and Bin Wang


[1] Zhang, K., Wang, B., Wang, W., Sohrab, F., Gabbouj, M., & Kuo, C. C. J. (2021). AnomalyHop: An SSL-based Image Anomaly Localization Method. arXiv preprint arXiv:2105.03797.